Головна / Історія Кам'янця-Подільського

Princes Koriatovichi

Inauguration of the bridge Novoplanovskogo 31 Jan., 1874 was a milestone in the life of ancient Kamenetstsa-Poogo. The city finally managed to escape from close loops Smotricha at attractive new spaces. Novoplanovskogo bridge leading from the beginning of an ancient street of New Town - Kneza Koriatovichey.

... 1 Jun., 1992 gorispolkom returned the original name of the street Chkalov Kneza Koriatovichey. Since the proposal was kamyanchan oznakomleno advance further 16 October, 1991 there Harakternym response Fyodor Pavlenko «Why do we princely names?» ( «Kamenets Gazette» of 7 December 1991) The author immediately warned that similar considerations chuyal of many people city: «... I am against renaming the street Chkalov. Let it in the future is named Russian pilot. We are all accustomed to such a title. Namely Koriatovichey let him call the street where they were born ...». By the way, Valery Chkalov was born in Novgorod Province 2 Feb., 1904 (exactly 30 years after opening Novoplanovskogo Bridge in Kamentse-Podolsk). In our city's life and activities do not overlap. Village Vasilovo, which appeared on the world future pilot, in 1937 (even for the life of the pilot, he died 15dekabrya 1938 p., testing a new aircraft) was Chkalovskom. But Orenburg, lived nearly 20 years (1938 -1957) Chkalovim again returned to the long title.

And what did the princes Koriatovichi for Kamenetz? And, in general, how many of those princes, like their name? At Podolie Dukes had four - Yuri, Alexander, Constantine and Theodore. The names of Lithuanian princes, as seen, not Lithuanian. The point is that their father KORIAT - Prince Novgorodka Lithuania (now g.Novogrudki - district center Grodno region in Belarus) - took the name Michael Orthodox and Orthodox names give their sons. By the way, except dukes named four Podolskih, historians indicate a further two sons Koriata-Mihayla - Lions and Basil, with the history of our region are not related.

At one time, the princes Koriatovichey felt (as some have, and still considers) the founders of the city in the loop Smotricha. However, archeological research clearly certified that the city and its castle existed long to come of Lithuanians. But precisely Princes Koriatovichey begins real (with names, dates and documents) History Kamenetz. And while letopisnaya beautiful story about two brothers - Lithuanian princes, who prey on the deer came to the island and founded a city, there is only a legend, but the real princes Koriatovichey we have, as the Євтим SITSINSKY a bit of historical information, and information These contradictory and confusing, it is amply demonstrated by several facts: take Koriatovichi done a lot for the development of the city.

And it all began 640 years ago whether 1362 p., whether in 1363 (different sources of lead different dates, and Ruský Lithuanian chronicle gives a detailed description, but no date). Then the big Lithuanian Algirdas prince (or Olgerd - in close to our language: variant name) at the blue waters broke Tatar princes - then-Podolskoy rulers land. Lashes released or transferred land captured from their own plemyannikam - the sons of the mother's brother Koriata. Koriatovichi (or Mikhailovich, if start from the Orthodox name of their father), come as certifies chronicle, in Podolskuyu land, entered the priyazn with local Atamanov became Podolskuyu defend the land, and Tatar Baskakov (tax collector), a tribute to stop.

Soon the castle was rebuilt. A Nov. 7 (15 - for a new style) 1374 Yuri and Alexander in the Kamenetz castle give the city a special instrument (the Russian language, unfortunately, remain only at a later date! Polish translation of the text). This literate princes give the city 200 fields fields and pasture for livestock, burghers exempt from all taxes for 20 years (for an alternative translation - for 24 years), give them the right of the court, through their representatives and give the city the right to receive income from commercial and industrial mortgage, etc..

Historians see the literacy borrowing in 1374 (though incomplete) outside of Magdeburg law, while in the act and not its name. This letter is the oldest trace the infiltration of German law on Podolie.

Princes Koriatovichi were under very considerable influence of Western culture in an effort to strengthen the settlement of cities and raise their profits and military power, they benefited from ready to German law. With Koriatovichey charter, which gave the city government, was, however, and the introduction of Magdeburg right here, seen from the fact that in 1432 King Volodislav issued Kamenetz enter Georgia and its successors confirming letter to the Magdeburg Law. Thanks, as now would say, pro-Western orientation Koriatovichey Kamenetz entered the top five Ukrainian cities, who have been granted the right of Magdeburg.

Earliest Kamenetz Church, which is information - this is Chateau Protection Orthodox Church. A built it in XIV century, Yuri and Alexander Koriatovichami. It was in this church, on peresskazam, buried the two princes. Unfortunately, the church is not preserved. In 1672 instead of wooden chateau Church, which fall into decay, concept to build a stone. March 20, Polish king gave its consent. In spring wooden church dismantled, and in August, the city seized the Turks and build a church in the castle was quite and think. That is why on a plan Kamenetz, compiled Kipriyanom TOMASHEVICHEM in 1672 after the passions of Turku, Pokrovsky church is not shown.

About Constantine Koriatoviche very little is known, particularly on its activities to, Podolia. This prince in 1385 gave a letter from Cracow merchants for the right to free trade with Podolem. Emphasize and the other received it from 1388, that he along with his brother, Fyodor servant Nemere possession Bakotoyu, Rusko-Lithuanian chronicles mention Ukrainian Polish King Kazimierz offered Constantinou to marry him for his dochurku and make it his heir, but he No, not wishing to give their Orthodox faith.

The figure of the old engravings: Prince Fyodor Koriatovich.

While this is not confirmed by other historical evidence, but at least shows that when Koriatovichah have been an infringement of Poles to Podolie and that shortly after classes Podolya Koriatovichami on. These princes were viewed as adherents of the Orthodox faith. On the spot death of Konstantin Chronicle said: «died in his State», but where - is unknown.

Fedor Koriatovich if Podolie arrived at the same time as the other brothers, it was here first, short-lived. Munication death Koriata Fedor received parental inheritance and lived in Novgorodku, and only after the death of three brothers arrived at Podolie pond and its sole rulers. Perhaps it is living Kamentse that from time Koriatovichey became the administrative center of Podolsk land and its natural consolidation has become a strong impregnable fortress. There is only one letter of the prince, whose servant his Bedrihu recorded four villages in the district Krasnogradskom.

When in 1386 Lithuania and Poland joined in the power Yagayly, Fedor Koriatovich of his fealty. In 1392, because the agreement between Yagayloy and his cousin Vitovtom Keystutovichem, was the last great Duke of Lithuania. He had a dream about how to resolve specific princes, he began to demand more from Podolski Prince of command, than it has been so far, but Theodore refused to «be obedient to him». In spring 1303 Vitovt with Lithuanian forces moved on Podolie. Fedor Koriatovich heard about it, went to Hungary, where he had considerable inheritance, but Kamentse left his Voivod Nestaka. Вітовт night approached Kamentsu, took the city by storm and took Podolsky Voivod Nestaka.

But it is quite another story. A nearly 30-year history of ownership Kamentsom princes Koriatovichami at the end. About the time the revival of the city after the Tartar domination recalled the first time in the XIX century and now has nearly 10 years, recalls the central street of the new plan - Princes Street Koriatovichey.

Podolyanin 18.01.2002g.